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121  Damn Small Linux / Laptops / Re: How to boot DSL using grub - frugal? on: July 28, 2013, 01:34:58 AM
The "initrd" command shouldn't have "/dev/sda2" in the directory name. That is a command to GRUB which already knows what HDD you're talking about from the "rootnoverify" command, so you only need to tell it the directory and file name inside the drive.

I don't know about the "ide1" command. The wiki describes how to use it when booting from CD (where you have to type "dsl" before other startup commands), but I don't know how it applies to HDD booting. I'd put my money on it not being relevant to your modern VAIO anyway.

As I said before, I've never tried booting DSL inside a directory on the HDD. You should be able to get it to work, but you might find problems along the way (I'm not sure your current troubles are a result of that though).

How GRUB works:
I'm working off memory so this may be a bit general, but it should give you an idea.

When you boot a PC, the BIOS checks all the hardware and enables itself to behave as an interface between an Operating System and the PC hardware. In the days of DOS, this BIOS interface was used for all access to the HDD and FDD (this was before the days of CDs, so they wern't supported in this manner).

Nowadays Operating Systems ignore this and use their own driver software to access the hardware. However there is one stage where the BIOS is still important, in initial loading of the OS from the HDD. To do this the BIOS reads a specific area on the HDD named the Master Boot Record (MBR) where a tiny program is located which instructs the computer where and how to begin in loading the components of the OS.

The MBR is not a partition of the disk and it has no file system, it is simply a set area of the disk which is reserved for the tiny machine language loading program. The problem is that this reserved area is only 512 bytes. This is enough for a basic loader to start windows or DOS, but in multi boot systems, there is not enough room to store all the options and the interface of a multi-boot loader such as GRUB.

The solution is splitting the boot loader into stages. The first stage of GRUB is run from the MBR and simply runs a second stage that contains the code to enable the loading of the third stage which contains the menu and booting system. It is this third stage that we see and interact with using menu.lst.

All these stages are working in your case.

The "rootnoverify" (or "root") command tells GRUB which HDD/partition you want to work with (in case it is a different one to that on which GRUB resides). From there on, it is able to access the file system on that partition and load various components of the operating system. This process is specified through the commands in "menu.lst".

As a result, GRUB commands for OSs designed for booting using GRUB are standardised and should behave similarly in every case (unless they are incorrectly used of course). The exception to this is the commands after the initial directory specified in the "kernel" line (in your case "/dsl/linux24"). These are not used by GRUB, rather they are passed on to the kernel of the OS loaded. Therefore they are individual to each OS used and must use its system for specifying HDDs/partitions (Linux uses the "/dev" directory) as it does no know of the "rootnoverify" command passed to GRUB.

That was probably more detailed than you needed, but hopefully it clears up some of your uncertainty. The GRUB docs I linked to earlier have all the practical info such as the command descriptions for "menu.lst".
122  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: Tulip driver on: July 28, 2013, 12:17:09 AM
The Tulip driver is already in DSL in the directory "/lib/modules/2.4.31/kernel/drivers/net/tulip". It should be loaded automatically. Are you having trouble with your network card?

Modules may be loaded at the terminal using the "modprobe" command.
123  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: resolutions less than 640x480 on: July 27, 2013, 11:59:24 PM
I don't know how flexible it is, but the resolution commands are passed to TinyX as a command from the file "/home/dsl/.xserverrc". The "-screen" option selects the resolution.

 Here is the TinyX Man page: (http://www.x-oz.com/TinyX.1.html)
124  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: chipset issues on: July 27, 2013, 01:44:35 AM
There's no log of supported hardware in DSL. The old forum archive might be the best source of info. I say give it a try yourself and report your success or lack thereof back here.

If the bug does prevent you from booting with GRUB, just use LILO as your bootloader and if the problem still persists, you might need to look at using an IDE HDD or a PCI SATA card.

Also, a SATA DVD drive will quite likely work because DSL uses a different booting system for the CD (err... assuming that system supports SATA drives at all).

Remember to use the "sata" startup command to enable SATA support in DSL.
125  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: chipset issues on: July 22, 2013, 07:13:47 AM
A bug in the 2.6 kernel might not mean a bug in 2.4. Looking in the bug report that the Wikipedia paragraph is based on, I don't see anyone talking about the bug occurring in anything other than the 2.6.17 kernel.

So there's no indication of whether it's a problem or not, but DSL is mainly aimed at earlier machines than those that use SATA anyway, hence the older kernel with smaller size and better support for older hardware. There is a lot of other new hardware which isn't supported in the 2.4 kernel.

DSL-N with its 2.6 kernel might be affected, but it will probably be replaced by the new DSL that John said he is working on.

Also, DSL comes with LILO as an alternative bootloader and presumably this doesn't suffer the same problem.
126  Damn Small Linux / Laptops / Re: How to boot DSL using grub - frugal? on: July 21, 2013, 01:34:25 AM
If you've got a SATA HDD, then you will likely need to put "sata" at the end of the "kernel" line (I do suggest you look at the table on the "cheatcodes" page in the Wiki). The drive will also be recognised as "sda", as mentioned before.

If that doesn't work, check the BIOS settings. I've rarely used DSL with SATA hardware (never tried to install), but it may be worth fiddling with the SATA settings such as IDE Emulation (maybe have a look through the archive of the old forum). Remember to take note of what settings you had to start with though.

The error basically means that GRUB is loading things happily, but the kernel can't find the drive/files for DSL. This might be because it is being told to look in the wrong place, it hasn't detected the drive (such as where SATA support isn't enabled), the filesystem is corrupt or there is a problem with the DSL files or directory structure.
127  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: how to install ez-ipupdate? on: July 19, 2013, 12:07:55 PM
That program isn't in the MyDSL respository so you will need to compile it from the source code.

This page has a guide to compiling programs: (http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/wiki/creating_a_compressed_extension_from_source.html)You don't need to make a tar.gz package for the MyDSL respository, but you are encouraged to so that you can help others who want the program.

That page doesn't tell you how to set up a compiling environment. An easy way to do this is to first install the following packages from the MyDSL repository:
  • gcc1-with-libs
  • gnu-utils
  • compile-3.3.5
128  Damn Small Linux / Laptops / Re: How to boot DSL using grub - frugal? on: July 19, 2013, 11:49:28 AM
Looking some more at the rest of your "kernel" command line, I think "initrd /dsl/minirt24.gz" should be on a line by itself beneath the "kernel" command. The ">" character after "frugal" shouldn't be there either.
Look here for an example: (http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/wiki/installing_grub.html#Booting_the_first_time) Don't know if "makeactive" is strictly required, but it wouldn't hurt.

You should have a look at this page as well: (http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/wiki/cheat_codes.html)
The commands there are meant to come after the "root=" command on the "kernel" line. A couple of the ones you have strangely aren't on the list (are you using the old version of DSL on this machine too?).
129  Damn Small Linux / Laptops / Re: How to boot DSL using grub - frugal? on: July 19, 2013, 11:16:28 AM
I suppose I was a bit ambiguous with the "root=" command as GRUB has its own "root" command (and similar "rootnoverify" command), in this case the equals sign makes all the difference.

The "kernel" command in GRUB passes everything after the location of the kernel, to the kernel once it is loaded. Therefore the "root=/dev/hda1" line would be interpreted by the DSL kernel with its "hd" disk designations, not by GRUB. Specifying "root=/dev/(hd0,1)" is asking the kernel to look for the item "(hd0,1)" in the "/dev" directory, which you can see for yourself is not there using a file manager. This, I suspect, it what the error "VFS: Cannot open root device "(hd0" or 00:00" indicates.

Section of the GRUB docs about the "kernel" command. (http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/legacy/kernel.html#kernel)

As for the "sda" naming Vs "hda", this is related to the kernel versions. DSL uses "hd" to label IDE HDDs and "sd" to label SCSI, SATA, USB devices. Most modern linux distros (probably including Puppy) call all the drives "sd". Therefore if your desired partition is called "sda2" in Puppy, it will be "hda2" in DSL and hence your "root=" line after the "kernel" command would read "root=/dev/hda2". Also, I haven't tried this myself, but I figure if you want to run DSL in your "dsl" directory on hda2, then make the "root=" entry "root=/dev/hda2/dsl". Just to be clear, "rootnoverify" is a GRUB command, so keep the "(hd0,1)" format for it.

It looks like your VAIO is a few generations ahead of mine. As for the "boot" folder, I forgot you had a frugal install so the folders are a bit different. It doesn't matter.
130  Damn Small Linux / Laptops / Re: How to boot DSL using grub - frugal? on: July 18, 2013, 09:21:15 AM
Are you trying to boot from the HDD or the CDROM (i.e. what you were trying to do on your HP laptop?). If you are booting from the HDD then it looks like you have the wrong HDD/partition set as the "root" in menu.lst.

If you can boot from CD, look in all the HDD partitions in the /mnt directory and when you find one that has the Linux directories (bin, boot, opt, etc.) take note of it and enter it into menu.lst after "root=/dev/". If your HDD only has one partition, then it will probably be "hda1", so enter "root=/dev/hda1" into menu.lst.

If you can't boot the CD, tell me the model of your VAIO. I have an old one and could try booting DSL myself if it's a similar model.
131  Damn Small Linux / DSL Ideas and Suggestions / Re: Will DSL support ARM Architecture? on: July 16, 2013, 01:32:12 AM
Some time ago I was thinking about running DSL on an Android tablet I was given. I planned on using Qemu (http://wiki.qemu.org/) which can emulate X86 architecture on other systems. I never got around to the project, but the same approach should work (with quite a degree more ease) with a Raspberry Pi.

I did a quick search on Google and was surprised to find most people emulating a Raspberry PI on their PC using Qemu. Still, I found this forum topic on running Windows 95 (and even XP!) in the emulated environment:

Of course it is a very inefficient solution, but using DSL I would expect pretty decent performance all the same (though the min. requirements are slightly higher than the first versions of Win 95).

As for a proper ARM version of DSL, I don't think there is anything in the works at the moment.
EDIT- I thought I remembered a topic like this coming up before: http://damnsmalllinux.org/forums/index.php?topic=13.0
132  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: DSL from router PXE - laptop is hanging for half a minute from time to time on: July 13, 2013, 12:26:27 AM
That's a weird problem. I've never seen anything like it on a computer that isn't scratching for resources. Still, a few things come to mind.

First, if you exit X and go to the terminal, does the problem still occur? If so, then ignore the next two suggestions. Otherwise, for where I talk about editing files, you'll need a HDD install. If running from CD or a "frugal" install, just do a "killall" command e.g. "killall torsmo" and see if it solves the problem (not quite as certain as disabling it at startup though).
--edit: Or just exit X, edit the files in the RAM drive using nano and then do "startx" to bring up X again. If you've run System Rescue CD, I'll assume you're happy with the Linux terminal.

That resource monitor (torsmo) at the top right of the desktop updates I think at the rate your problem it happening and it includes a network monitor (which has never worked on any system I've used with the net). The program can be disabled by commenting it out of the file "/home/dsl/.xinitrc". If that fixes things and you still want it running, you could try editing its config file "/home/dsl/.torsmorc" to disable just the network monitoring function.

You could also try changing the window manager to fluxbox and right clicking on a desktop icon and choosing to exit DFM from the menu (or to do on startup, edit "/home/dsl/.desktop" to read:
      wm: fluxbox
       icons: 0

If all this fails (not unlikely), it might be time for a bit of research. If your laptop is a rather unusual modern design, the chipset it uses might not have been fully supported in the DSL kernel (version 2.4.31, the other distros you tried use much later versions). You might have to hit Google hard to find out. If so, then there may be a driver package that you could compile for DSL and load as module/s on startup (however it may also exist and not support kernel 2.4).
133  Damn Small Linux / Other Help Topics / Re: CD boot - Screen unreadable on: July 12, 2013, 11:47:57 PM
Have you run Xsetup? To do so, enter the text "xsetup" as a startup command at the initial screen when you boot from the CD. e.g. "dsl xsetup".

Mess around with the options in that (naturally preferring lower quality options to begin with) until it works. The framebuffer (Xfbdev) should work in your case, but might not be the most efficient option. (http://damnsmalllinux.org/wiki/tinyx.html#Usage_in_DSL)
134  MyDSL Extensions / Apps / Re: Don't understand the burning app in dsl (cdw) on: July 08, 2013, 04:58:03 AM
Post attachments seem only to be viewable by members, so for the sake of accessibility, here it is as a quote:

cdw is an ncurses-based CD writer program, which uses cdrecord and mkisofs.
Thanks to Sharad Mittal, who wrote CDrecorder! I learned threads and regex's
from his code!

Copy cdw-0.2.x.tar.gz to your source directory, such as /usr/local/src and
'untar' the archive. Complie and install! Type:
tar -xzf cdw-0.2.x.tar.gz
cd ./cdw-0.2.x
make install

The configure script will detect all packages that are needed or suggested
for cdw. The cdrecord and mkisofs are always needed for compiling. Without these
programs cdw is useless. Cdw can work together with the following
cdda2wav: to save audio CDs to wav files.
lame: for saving tracks directly to mp3 instead of wav.
oggenc: for saving tracks directly to Ogg Vorbis format.

Configure automatically detects these programs if they are available. You
can also add the path of the programs to configure manually . For more information type:
'./configure --help'

The program automatically creates ~/.cdw.conf in your home directory. This
distribution package contains a default.conf file, which is a sample configuration.
The program automatically creates ~/.cdw directory, and makes symbolic links
from the selected files into this directory.

Install of GTK GUI
If you would like to use the GTK interface of cdw you must add --enable-gui
parameter for configure because cdw doesn't contain this feature in default.
Only the version 2 of GTK is supported. After you can use cdw in GTK
interface if you start the program with cdw -g.

Install of Disk catalog
If you would like to use the "Disk catalog" , you must install the mysqlclient
and mysqlclient-dev packages or sqlite and sqlite-dev before compiling. In
Debian Woody the name of these packages are: libmysqlclient10 and
libmysqlclient10-dev.  The configure will detect these packages and the
complied code will contain this feature. In this case, you will have a new tool
called cdwdic.  IMPORTANT! The /doc directory contains a cdw.sql file. You must
install this to your system for using the "Disk catalog". The installation
process is very simple:

With MySQL:
mysql <cdw.sql

With SQLite:
sqlite database_file < cdw_sqlite.sql

If you would like to install as an other user or the user has password
or by any chance the target system will be an other system, you can install
the database with the following method:

mysql -u username -p [password] -h hostname < cdw.sql

You will need to set these up in the options (see later).

Program parameters
cdws accept the following parameters:
-c | --catalog : running in "Disk catalog" mode.
-g | --gui     : running with GTK interface
-v | --version : display the version number of cdw
-h | --help    : display help

cdwdic knows the following parameters:
add <name> <no> <category> <date>: add new disk into catalog.
    <name> the name of disk
    <no> the number of disk (must be a number)
    <category> the name of the category (new categories are automatically created)
    <date> any date that you want to store. For example the date when the disk is added.
search <string>
    Search the <string> in the name of files and directories. Case insensitive!
show <name>
    Display the contents of <disk>.
list [-c <category>]
    Display the name and number of disks. With -c as an optional parameter
    only the disks in <category> category displayed.

The menu:

Add files: Select files and directories for the cdimage. Press <space> to
select a file || directoy, or press <ESC> to quit dialog box.

Delete files: The select dialog is on the rigth side of the screen. If you
want to delete files from the image, use this dialog. Press <DEL> to delete
a file, or press <ESC> to leave this dialog.

Create image: Create a cdimage to "Imagefile" file from selected files. See Options later.
Copy CD image: Make an image from a CD in your drive.
Write image: If the "Write from image" is checked cdw will write the image to
the CD. If not checked, selected files are written direcly without image creation.
Copy data CD: Copy existing data CD from CD-ROM. (A reader and a writer devise is suggested :)
Blank CD-RW: Erase data from CD-RW (rewritable disc). In the options you can
select the type of blank: fast or full.
Options: see later.

Quit:    :)) Guess, what...

Here you can configure cdrecord and mkisofs, also cdda2wav,
lame, oggenc and MySQL, if accessible. Use the General and Other tabs.
All options are associated with a key. You can modify the options by pressing the corresponding key.
You can leave the input fields with ENTER or press ESC to quit the field without saving.
General properties (1):
SCSI device:
scsibus,target,lun. (For a SCSI-emulated IDE CDRW: 0,0,0)

writing speed
reading/writing image from/to this file

reading device (if you copy data CDs or creating CD images)

mkisofs & cdrecord write logs to this file

Volume ID:
adjust disc ID

Blank fast:
'cdrecord -blank=fast || all' (fast blanking|| full erase)

Eject when done:
eject cd tray when finished writing

Disk at once:
fixate disk after writing.

Joliet information:
generate Joliet directory information

Rock Ridge:
generate Rock Ridge directory information

Dummy write:
writing in dummy mode

Show log after write:
show the content of log after writing.

Auto show vol.:
show the volume id editor window before creating the image.

Insert silence between audio tracks. See cdrecord(1) for more information.

You can add new tracks to an existing CD. The previously stored data will not vanish.
IMPORTANT!!! You can create multi-session disks when you write the first
track in multi-session mode!

Buffer Underrun Proof writing. If your writer supports this feature, you are suggested to
use it and check this box. In this case the program waits for data if the buffer is getting empty.

Other properties (2):

CD mount point:
The "Disk catalog" uses this property. "Disk catalog" will read the content of
disks from this directory. It is suggested to set up a directory as it is set
in the fstab for the cd-rw device. IMPORTANT!!! In the fstab it must be the cd-rw device,
because cdw will mount the disk under the directory specified there.

Auto disk catalog:
Add the disk to the catalog after writing.

MySQL host:
The name of the host where the cdw database installed. It is possible to use different
computers for cdw database and cdw (program). In this case cdw will handle the
data over the network. Here you must specify the name or the ip of the host where
you installed the database. If the program and the database are on the same computer,
use localhost (default).

MySQL user:
The name of the user who can access cdw database.

Audio directory:
cdw will rip tracks to this directory from audio CDs.

Rip audio tracks in stereo mode.

Bit per channel:
8 or 16

Echo to sound device:
While you are "copying" audio tracks from CD, the sound is also copied to soundcard. In this
way you can listen to the CD, but the speed will be 1x.

Encode to Ogg:
The output files will be in Ogg Vorbis format with real-time encoding.

High quality:
Generate VBR encoded files.

Encode to MP3:
The output files will be in MP3 format with real-time encoding.

Constant bitrate: 128, 192 or 256 are possible values.

Press <F10> to save and exit or <ESC> to quit without saving.

The properties displayed gray are disabled. For example if the properties
of MP3 encoding are grey, it is suggested to check the lame program.

<F1>     Display help
<F2>     Display and edit "Volume ID"
<F3>     Edit additional parameters given to cdrecord, e.g.: -overburn
<F4>     Select CD size
<F5>|<L> View last logfile
<F6>     Information about raw disc material (cdrecord -atip) (overwrites last log :( )
<F10>    Display the GPL
<L>      Display the content of logfile
<E>      Eject CD-RW tray
<C>      Disk Catalog
<A>      Add disc to disk catalog (if installed)
<G>      Rip audio CD
<Q>      Quit

Rip audio CDs
If you enter into the ripper interface, cdw searches for an audio CD. If
found, it displays the number of audio tracks. Enter again if you changed the disk in the
tray. The 'start track' contains track number of starting track and cdw will
copy tracks until 'last track'. If you would like to rip only the 5th track, you must
specify 5 for starting and 5 for end track also. Changes are saved when you start
the rip procedure with the <G> key.

Disk catalog
The Disk catalog is a standalone part of cdw. Previously we used 'dic' but it wasn't
too interactive and we started to develop our catalogizer. This disk catalog is based on
MySQL. You can enter into the catalog interface in to ways: pressing <C> in main menu of
cdw or start cdw with -c (or --catalog) parameter. You can navigate with the left and right
arrows on the keypad between the menu and the categorized files. The main level always displays
the name of categories. Inside these lists you can find the disks, directories and files.
You can enter into the the category, disk or directory with <ENTER>. You can go one
level up with <BACKSPACE>. The bottom of screen displays information about currently
selected item.

Disk catalog menu:
Show all disk: display all disks without categories in disk number order. You can go
back with <BACKSPACE> or with / key.

Add disk: add new disk to catalog.
1. Insert the disk into CD-RW.
2. Enter the name of disk.
3. Enter the NUMBER of disk.
4. Enter the name of category which will contain the disk.
You can quit the 'add disk' procedure by pressing <ESC>. If the category doesn't exist yet,
cdw will create it. cdw will mount the disk if you set the fstab item with
correct device name and mountpoint.

Search: you can search in the names of files and directories. Enter the string that you
want to find and the result of search will be displayed. cdw will search in all categories,
disks and directorie. After the search you can see all disks which contain the specified
string. The program will show the search results until requesting "Show all disk". The
top of the screen (the search label) informs you about the type of information on the screen.
If checked you can see the result of search else you can see everything.

Delete: delete a disk or category from the catalog. By deleting a disk or category, all items in that
container will be deleted, too! As you delete a category, all disks are in that category are deleted,too!
The program will asks you before deletion whether you are sure to delete that item.

Quit: exit from disk catalog. If you start cdw with -c or --catalog parameter, you will exit
from the program, otherwise you will go back to the cdw main menu.

F1     - Display help window
->     - Enter into catalogized files window
<-     - Enter into main menu of disk catalog.
ENTER  - Change between category, disk or directory.
BSPACE - Go up one level
DEL    - Delete disk or category
A      - Add disk to catalog
S      - Show all
Q      - Exit from disk catalog

Mail bug reports to <vbali@linuxforum.hu>
Latest release: http://cdw.sourceforge.net

Aug 26, 2003
135  MyDSL Extensions / Apps / Re: Don't understand the burning app in dsl (cdw) on: July 07, 2013, 06:33:20 AM
CD burning in DSL is a common problem, so I decided to dig up the documentation for the early version of the cdw program that is included in DSL. Attached is the readme file that I took from the source archive I downloaded, it describes the program's functions in some depth.

As an alternative, one may always use the "cdrecord" command in the terminal. Simply type cdrecord, any options you desire, and then the path to the image file you want to burn. On some machines, you might need to specify the SCSI ID of your CD/DVD burner using the option "dev=". Most commonly, this is 0,0,0 but it can easily be something else. To check the SCSI ID of your drive do "cdrecord -scanbus" and read off the number that corresponds with the drive you want to use, then insert it after "dev=" on the command such as "cdrecord dev=0,1,0 /dir/file.iso". Check the other options listed with "cdrecord --help" for more control over the burning process.
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